A device attached immediately above the casing to control the pressure and prevent the escape of fluids from the annular space between the drill pipe and casing or shut off the hole, if no drill pipe is in the hole, should a blowout occur. These devices are pressure tested between 3,500 – 5,000 psi when installed and every two weeks afterwards.
Fracturing is a means of opening the fissures in the Barnett Shale formation by the use of hydraulic pumps and fracturing fluid. Fresh water stored in frac pits is pumped in stages into the Barnett Shale formation. Once fractures in the rock have been created, sand (like beach sand) is mixed with the fresh water and pumped into these fractures to help prevent the fracture from closing back once the hydraulic force is reduced. By packing or filling of these fractures with sand, this will allow the formation to produce into the new drilled well bore (hole) and bring gas to surface.
The City works with the gas well operators to determine a truck route that will have the least impact on traffic as part of the SUP. The gas well operator must use only the streets designated on the approved truck route, and must pay a road damage remediation fee.