Natural gas is transported via buried pipelines. These lines are all clearly marked with pipe markers that are normally bright yellow markings with the company name and emergency phone numbers.
Before you dig on your property, contact the Texas one-call center by dialing 8-1-1 at least 48 hours (not including weekends or holidays) prior to beginning the excavation. The operators will come and mark their underground facilities. There is no charge for this service and is required by state law.
These are terms used in the industry for moving in the drilling rig; installing all the parts, units, motors and equipment; and getting ready to drill the well. Once the well is drilled, the process is again done in reverse to remove all the equipment used in the drilling operations.
It is an earth pit lined with plastic. Its measurements run in the range of 200’ x 400’ depending on how much water is used to fracture the wells. These pits are filled with fresh water and look like a large swimming pool. It takes approximately 4,000,000 gallons of water to fracture a well. The pits are leveled and the land restored when the Operator is finished with the drill site.
Cuttings are particles of formation obtained from a well during drilling operations. They are brought to the surface by circulating mud-laden fluid. The cuttings that are created will be transported by truck off location to an approved disposal system. All of the disposal sites have been approved & monitored by the Texas Railroad Commission.
Circulating is the pumping of drilling fluid from the suction pit, through the drill pipe and back to the surface through the annulus. Although mud is circulated, the terms “circulated” or “circulating” applies to this operation while drilling is temporarily suspended, to obtain samples from bottom or keep hole in condition while awaiting other operations.
Cementing is the operation by which a cement slurry is forced down through the casing and out at the lower end in such a way that it fills the space between the casing and the sides of the well bore to a predetermined height above the bottom of the well. This is for the purpose of securing the casing in place and excluding water and other fluids from the well bore. All cements are in a liquid phase and able to be pumped by pumps.
Fracturing is a means of opening the fissures in the Barnett Shale formation by the use of hydraulic pumps and fracturing fluid. Fresh water stored in frac pits is pumped in stages into the Barnett Shale formation. Once fractures in the rock have been created, sand (like beach sand) is mixed with the fresh water and pumped into these fractures to help prevent the fracture from closing back once the hydraulic force is reduced. By packing or filling of these fractures with sand, this will allow the formation to produce into the new drilled well bore (hole) and bring gas to surface.